Our monthly conflict tracker highlights eight deteriorations in December.
Taliban authorities in Afghanistan banned women from attending university and working in NGOs, disrupting one of the world’s largest humanitarian responses as tens of millions struggle to survive amid economic hardship and a severe winter.
Fears of a looming humanitarian crisis in Nagorno-Karabakh grew after Azerbaijan-backed protesters began blocking the Lachin corridor, a vital transport link connecting Armenia with the enclave.
In the first clash in two-and-a-half years, Indian and Chinese soldiers fought hand-to-hand along the disputed Line of Actual Control, injuring dozens.
In Peru, a failed attempt to dissolve Congress ended the brief presidency of Pedro Castillo, prompting widespread protests that turned deadly amid a fierce security crackdown.
Fighting wreaked havoc in South Sudan’s Upper Nile state while violence perpetrated by armed youth killed dozens and displaced thousands in Jonglei state.
In Somaliland, clashes between security forces and protesters left at least 20 people dead in a contested area near Somalia’s Puntland region.
We also spotlight improvements in three conflict situations in Africa.
The military and civilian groups in Sudan signed an agreement paving the way for an all-civilian government and an end to the longstanding political impasse.
In a positive development for Ethiopia’s delicate peace process, Eritrean forces began withdrawing from parts of the Tigray region.
Authorities secured major international financial support for Niger’s development plan, with pledges much higher than initially expected, while levels of jihadist violence decreased.
Aside from the scores of conflict situations we usually assess, we tracked notable developments in December in Bolivia, Gambia, Jordan and Rwanda.
Source: International Crisis Group